Foreword

This book has been a labour of love for me and a trial of sorts as well. The topic of Andalus has been near and dear to my heart for the past few years not due to its intrinsic value as a crucial period in Islamic History, but rather as a prism that can be used to view the contemporary Islamic world and the battle currently underway between it and the forces of Kufr, (Unbelief). More importantly it can be used as a means of understanding what the significance is of actions committed against us by the Kuffaar, why they continue to occur and, most importantly, how to stop them and reassert Allāh’s Shariah upon His Earth. In addition, before anyone has the opportunity to ponder, I have no pretensions of making this book one that is ‘unbiased’ when clearly the title itself betrays my bias, and therefore I won’t try either.

However, as a slight shift from the usual fare of Islamic books on the topic of Andalus, I will not be writing about the glorious entry of Tariq Bin Ziyad through Gibraltar, Yusuf Bin Tashfin’s destruction of the Kuffaar at Zalaqa, or even of notable advances in science and jurisprudence. Rather, I chose to cover a period that almost no Muslim Classical Scholar (pre-18th Century), seems to have covered in any detail including Imam Maqri who only devoted a few pages to it in his voluminous Al-Nafh Al Tib. In fact this topic has been almost the exclusive domain of Western Orientalists, to which they add their own interpretations, (save a handful of them). The under-covered topic in question is Andalus post-1492 (post-Reconquista). The work at hand is a combination between a source-book and a work of historical analysis in that, I realized, English speaking Muslims, (or for that matter, anybody English speaking), has a hard time coming across translations of primary sources and their sources in their original languages, and hence the Appendices are voliminous and could constitute a book, in and of, themselves. I have deliberately used sources that are easy to find and are available in electronic form on the internet so that if those curious enough want to delve further into this topic themselves and go further in this field than I have, would be able to. Some of the sources that I have translated from Arabic and Spanish have never been translated before and are for the first time available to English speaking Muslims. Remember, this is the history of the ummah, we should know it and take heed of its lessons lest we repeat our mistakes. Essentially, there should be no excuses any more for the brothers and sisters for laziness or lack of resources

The sources used in this study are almost exclusively from Western Scholars, (if not scholars, then individuals that are first hand witnesses), except for a few Muslim sources that have been translated by Western Orientalists during the 19th century or have been translated by myself. The reason for this arrangement is twofold:

1)      As I stated previously, we lack Muslim primary sources on the topic, save for sparse coverage of events by Muslims historians at the time, therefore the reliance on western sources.

2)      The advantage of using western sources, (especially Spanish Royal and Inquisitorial Records), is that the accounts of the behaviour of the Christians Spaniards upon the Muslims are illustrated with greater clarity and are believed easier by those, (Muslims and non-Muslims), who are sceptical of Muslim historiography and fact checking. The words of the kuffaar are a testament to their own crimes. Surprisingly, even through these accounts, the determination, the iman and the Islam of those Muslims that were left in Spain shines through and, InshaAllāh, they will be beneficial for this attempt re-owning this portion of Islamic History and to return it back to its rightful place.

For Muslims that are sceptical of the research sources, (since they are kaffir sources), I propose to them:

1)      We have no other choice but to use them since we have nothing else to go on. To leave this history and to ignore it as if it never happened, is a crime that we would be committing and our ancestors have committed and have wronged the blood of the thousands of shuhada of those approximately one hundred and fifty years of Islamic History, (that were predominantly filled with profound sorrow).

2)      I have taken the trouble to recheck sources against each other to check for discrepancies, (as much as I could), and to see if the account and interpretation of events match up with what is realistically[1] possible based on the ayah:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَأٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْماً بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ[2

O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done.

Ibn Kathir (رحمه لله) States in his Tafsir regarding this Ayah:

Allāh the Exalted ordered investigating the news that sinners and the wicked bring, to make sure of its authenticity. Otherwise, if the sinner’s word is taken for granted and a decision is based on it, regardless of whether the information is true or not, the authorities will be taking the lead of the sinners. Allāh the Exalted and Most Honored forbade taking the path of the corrupted and sinners. This is why groups of the scholars of Hadith refuse to accept narrations from narrators whose reliability is unknown, for they might be from among the wicked people, in reality.

So if that is the case with the Fasiq, what then of the kafir?! So I have chosen to use the research of the Ulema and righteous historians to validate the following history and if it is not mentioned by them or the non-Muslim accounts seem out of character and attribute something sinful upon Muslims, then it is noted as such. So it can be said the purpose of this Book is simply Ibra’, (admonition or lesson/example), if nothing else.

In addition I would like to add I chose to not use the word ‘moor’ to describe Muslim or the adjective Moorish but instead Muslim, or Islamic respectively, due to the fact that the word ‘moor’ has been used as a result of the corruption of the word ‘Muslim’ by people of the Christian lands, (especially Italy and Spain). When it comes to the topic at hand of the Muslims that stayed/were left behind in Andalus after 1492, which were converted by force, I refer to the collective as Morisco’s, (which in Spanish means ‘Little Moor’ or ‘Little Muslim’ as term of belittlement), for the sake of ease of understanding. However, i have repeatedly and painstakingly put the word ‘Muslim’ with in brackets to make sure that everyone understands that I speak of Muslims and so that it reinforces that definition for those that are new to this topic. As for those Muslims of Arghun, (Aragon), and Valencia that had submitted to the Spanish Crown of Castille not as Mudejar, but as Mudajjan (مدجن) which means ‘domesticated’ or ‘tame,’ (it is term of insult, and in this context it implies the humiliated status of those that willingly submitted to the Spanish Crown). This delineation ceased to exist after the mid 1500’s.

Color coding has been used to indicate Ahadith, verses of the Quran, Tafsir of Ibn Kathir and the saying of scholars that Ibn Kathir mentions therein. As for the saying of the Sahaba, (companions of the Prophet صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم), they have been left in normal black font.

Furthermore, I have decided to use the Arabic transliteration of place names as far as possible, (i.e. Arghun instead of Aragon, Garnata instead of Granada and so on), while still opting to use the Christian dates for convenience. In addition, translations of sources are just that, and can not substitute for the source in its original source, so as a disclaimer, the reader should always consult the source text if available in the language of origin. Morever, I urge the reader to not look over the footnotes, as they are packed with vital information and facts that would aid in the understanding of this topic. With the limited time and the lack of proper resources at the current location, I ask the readers to forgive me for this works shortcomings. In advance, I give permission for all to copy the material in here for dissemination and if anyone has the ability and time, and are able to improve upon the content and or, make additions, (while attributing the work to myself), they have my permission to do so.

Finally, as these loose ends have been tied up, I ask Allāh for His mercy and guidance and to guard from that which is false and harmful, and to guide me towards the truth and that which is beneficial. With that, I begin with the Dua of Musa (عليه سلام):

قَالَ رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِى صَدْرِى – وَيَسِّرْ لِى أَمْرِى – وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِّن لِّسَانِى – يَفْقَهُواْ قَوْلِي


“(Moses) said: “O my Lord! expand me my breast;

“Ease my task for me;

“And remove the impediment from my speech,

“So they may understand what I say:” [3]


[1] By realistic I mean, I give Muslims the benefit of the doubt in the situation where the non-Muslim sources accuse them of un-Islamic actions, (strange acts such as where a mujahid who has fought for 3 years suddenly without provocation declared the he wished to die as a Christian). However, on facts that Muslims Scholars have commented on and confirmed, such as the music and singing of the people of Andalus, those things are agreed upon with the non-Muslim sources.

[2] Surah Hujarat, Verse 6

[3] Surah Taha, Verses 25-28

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