Expulsions in Arghun, Catalonia, Andalucia and Castile
On May 29th 1610, the proclamation to expel all the Muslims of Arghun came into force, (albeit the declaration is dated April 17th 1610). Fortunately for the Muslims of Arghun, they had procured good relations with the French King, Henry IV, (who saw the Muslims as a useful ally to keep their enemy, Spain, off balance and a way to project French power into Spain), which had resulted in an ordinance issued by the king on February 22nd 1610 allowing safe passage through France and onwards to wherever they wish but if they wanted to stay in France, they had to convert to Catholicism, (which presumably some did, since they had, for over two generations, grown used to pretending to be Christians and subterfuge in this regard). King Henry in his own words said:
“His Majesty has every good intention toward them—of treating them with humanity, receiving them in his realms, where those willing to make a profession of the Roman Catholic Apostolic faith may reside in all security. Those others who do not wish to do so will be granted right of passing freely as far as his ports for the Levant so that they may thence arrange transport to Barbary [the Maghrib], or elsewhere, as they may wish, (Harvey, ‘2005,’ 318).”
The French after initial hesitation, accepted the Muslims of Arghun but set a upper limit of 8,000-10,000 Muslims. Approximately 10,000 Muslims passed through Navarre into France only after paying a hefty entry tax, (10-12 Reales per head), to enter France, (ibid, 319). Approximately 40,000 were directed to Los Alfaques, an embarkation port, to board ships to leave. Muslims had now begun to realize the dangers of being disembarked in Wahran [Oran] and the sloppy arrangements the Spanish had made for their safe passage into Muslims territory. It is very likely the ship captains, ever the clever capitalists, would have charged the same amount to board their ships, but instead would have dropped their Muslims passengers, probably in the port city of Marseille in France from where they would be rerouted to Agde where other ships would take them to other locations such as Tunis, which seemed safer than Wahran at the time.
On January 5th 1610, it was Castile’s turn, and Muslims were given the order to leave Spain. However this proclamation was different from the previous two. The Muslims of Castile were given a choice of ‘Self expulsion,’ wherein they would ‘voluntarily’ turn in a written request to the local administrators of their areas requesting to leave. This is merely a cosmetic legal ruse as the alternative to leaving Spain was death or perpetual slavery. Reproduced below is the proclamation given to the people of Castile by King Philip III:
“Whereas for just and necessary reasons I have been moved out of consideration to the service of God and the safety for these realms of Spain to command that the Morisco New Christians [Muslim] resident in Valencia should leave and go away from these said realms of Spain for the reason set out in the proclamation which has been by order made there. Now, seeing that those of the said nation who inhabit the kingdoms of Old and New Castile, Extremadura, and La Mancha have become disquieted and shown signs that they may wish to depart and live outside these realms, and have begun to dispose of their property, selling it for far below what it is worth, and whereas it is not my intention that any should against his or her will live here, I therefore allow and give permission in virtue of these presents to all those who may wish to depart from these my kingdoms and realms of Spain, to live outside them wherever they desire, to do so without incurring any penalty within the space of thirty days counting from this [the date of this] proclamation. I grant that during this time they may dispose of their goods, chattels, and livestock but not their real estate, and they may take away the proceeds, not in coin, gold, silver, jewels, nor letters of exchange, but in the form of merchandise purchased from native inhabitants of these kingdoms, and from no others, and also in fruit, and produce from them. I nevertheless permit them to take such money as they will need for the journey they have to make. And in order that they may do all this in security, I hereby take and accept under my royal protection those who wish to leave this kingdom and guarantee them and their goods, so that during this period they may go about and be safe, sell, exchange, and alienate all the above-mentioned goods, chattels, and livestock of theirs and make use of money, gold, silver and jewels in merchandise the export of which is prohibited by the laws and decrees of these realms, without suffering unjustly any harm during the said period…they may export the said merchandise after paying the normal customs dues…and I command all the officers of justice of my kingdoms, governors of my frontiers…that they see to it that the above is observed, and that they do nothing against it…under penalty of loss of office. And I command that this my cedula [proclamation] be proclaimed so that it may be known to all. Delivered in Madrid December 28, 1609
It is my will that those who wish to leave my realms should not pass through the province of Andalusia nor the kingdom of Granada, Murcia, Valencia nor Aragon, under penalty of death and confiscation of goods.
I, The King. (ibid 322-333).”
The important points that should be noted about this proclamation are:
- Instead of the rushed three day time limit given to the Valencians and Arghuni Muslims, the Muslims of Castile were given a month to arrange their affairs. The reasons for this are not clear but perhaps they realized the resistance caused by such a hasty expulsion in Castile, (where most of the Muslims of Garnata were), would lead to massive armed resistance. They perhaps decided for that reason to use ‘velvet gloves’ with the Muslims of Castile.
- Muslims could not take with them their gold, silver, jewelry or money outside of Spain and thus were forced to spend it in Spain. This was a clever move by Philip III as it enriched the Spanish peoples at the expense of the Muslims, injecting massive amounts of gold and silver into the various local economies of Spain, while depriving these massive amounts to the Muslims lands these people immigrated to.
- Most importantly, the only route available to exit Spain was either northwards through France, (and onwards either to Istanbul or the Maghrib) or the westwards through Portuguese ports, (which would take them towards the Maghrib, or perhaps the grueling trip towards Istanbul).
Many Castilian Muslims, like their brethren from Valencia and Arghun, went to France and, in fact, it turned out to be a long-term refugee center for Muslims waiting to relocate to Muslim lands, (such as Tunis). However, prior to leaving Spain and entering into France, Muslims had to surrender half of the wealth they possessed on the Spanish border! So if one were to calculate, they spent what they had on making arrangements for the journey out of Spain and foods and supplies along the way, and then the Spanish would really take whatever you had left, leaving you, the Muslim muhajir, with nothing, (ibid, 325)! Moreover the accounts of Muslims arriving in France, (mostly Marseille), being forced by farmers to pay whenever they drank from a river or sat in the shade of a tree, make one’s blood boil at the heartlessness of the kuffaar (not only because of the past, but because they continue to do it today and we sit idly by and sometimes even aid them in their evil!), may Allāh guide them and if not, consign them to His Eternal Wrath. Word began filtering back to the Uthmani khalifa, Ahmad I, who then sent his envoy to the French, Haji Ibrahim, to register a protest with the French on October 5th 1610, (Lea, ‘2001,’ 361). The Muslims that survived the extortions, and were ready to board the ships, were starved so that they would agree to sell their “…children in exchange for a handful of figs or a little bread, (ibid, 324).” Morever, soldiers would capture for their own private profit, “…large numbers of children and sold them both at home and abroad, for 8, 10, 12 and 15 ducats a piece, (ibid).”
Finally, on January 12-13th, 1610, the proclamation for the expulsion of the Muslims of the Spanish province of Andalucia was produced, (Andalucia included in it Garnata, Almeria and Murcia). The irony of this edict was that since the Muslims who were accused of being involved in or associated with the mujahideen during the Al Bushra jihad were relocated to Castile, this edict targeted those who had actually collaborated with the Spanish actively, were actual murtads or had, out of fear, not joined the jihad! Now their time had come and you can be sure there were many ‘Muslims’ that were shocked on that day due to their belief that their loyalty to the kuffaar had bought them security!
Continuing on the same vein as mentioned above, there were some strange and ironic circumstances that resulted from these expulsion orders. One of these, were those who were genuinely murtadd and had converted to Christianity, and perhaps were priests and/or nuns. They too were ordered to leave Spain. However, Muslims that had in recent times come from the maghrib, (on their own will or as captives), and had converted to Christianity were exempted from expulsion, (ibid, 328). The other category was those who were slaves of Christian masters from the Spanish mainland and those that were caught in fighting in Wahran during the expulsion process. The latter is interesting as it can be assumed that some Muslims desperate to go back to Spain might have, out of desperation, fought with the Spanish for the purpose of getting caught. The slaves were ordered, in this case to be expelled and not allowed to return. In addition they would be kept in slavery, but not as normal slaves but as galley slaves who were kept chained, and as a result, not able to breed, thus ending the problem of slaves having children, (who, by law, would be freed), and the ‘Muslim problem’ of Spain would presumably begin once again. In fact, in 1612, there are indications that some of these so called Muslims had quietly and willingly returned to their home regions in Spain from Dar Al Islam with the help of their Christian neighbors, (from their Spanish home towns), (ibid, 330).
After numerous clean up operations, on Febuary 20, 1614, it was declared that the expulsion had been completed all over Spain, (save a few isolated cases of Muslims around Spain). Thus, after 903 years of Islam in the Iberian Peninsula, the end had finally come. Centuries of jihad and the spread of tawheed was followed by even more centuries of depravity, music, poetry, betrayal and excessive comfort. The mujahideen of Al Bushra should be remembered as an example to all of the mujahideen all over the world for all time as those who were few in number, but mighty in their iman and were betrayed frequently, but never betrayed their covenant with Allāh:
مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَـهَدُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَيْهِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّن قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبْدِيلاً
Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allāh; of them some have fulfilled their Nahbah; and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.
 This should be a lesson to the ‘Sons of Iraq’ and the so called tribal ‘lashkars’ that are being formed by the Americas to fight the mujahideen in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Once they are finished with you, they will discard you—like trash. Take heed from the example of the Hmong tribe of Laos, of whom, approximately 60,000 were recruited by the CIA as part of their efforts to shut down the Ho Chi Minh trails, (which supplied weapons, men and supplies to the communist Vietcong forces fighting the Americans). America conveniently discarded them to the mercy of the victorious communist forces and ever since 1975, they have been persecuted by the Communist government of Laos. So you traitors of the ummah! Don’t be under any illusions, the mujahideen will win this battle and the Americans will leave you. Do you really want to live hidden in jungles and mountains, disconnected from the world for years on end as the Hmong have and live a life of disgrace, humiliation and shame? Do you want that disgrace and shame to then blight your offspring and their offspring and so on, as well (in the case of the Hmong, they have suffered 33 years of humiliation which hasn’t stopped yet, where they are still running like dogs from one jungle to the next)?! The Laotian government use the Hmong that have surrendered to them, to chase down those Hmong who are still on the run, so when America does eventually leave, what, Oh Enemies of Allah!, do you think we will do with you? The choice is entirely upon you…
 Some of the scholars said Nahbah means “Met their appointed time (i.e., death).” Al Bukhari said, Nahbah means their covenant and refers back to the beginning of the Ayah.” “They died true to their covenant and loyal, and some are still waiting to die in a similar manner, and some of them have never changed in the least.” This was also the view of Qatadah and Ibn Zayd. Some of other scholars said that the word Nahbah means a vow.
 Surah Ahzab, verse 23