March 12, 2009


Posted in Uncategorized at 6:02 pm by History of Al Andalus

Books and Encyclopaedias

1. Davis, Robert C. Christians Slaves, Muslims Masters. New York: Plagrave Macmillan, 2004

2. Dozy, Reinhardt. Spanish Islam: A History of the Muslims in Spain. London: Frank Cass. 1972

3. Jubayr, Ibn. The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2003

4. Mazhar, Ul-Haq. A Short History of Muslim Spain. Lahore: Bookland, 2007

5. Kamen, Henry. Empire: How Spain Became A World Power 1492-1763. New York: HarperCollins, 2004.

6. Kamen, Henry. The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1999.

7. Elliot, J.H. Imperial Spain 1469-1716. London: Edward Arnold, 1981

8. Harvey, L.P. Muslims In Spain 1500-1614. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2005

9. Lea, Henry Charles. The Moriscos of Spain. New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2001

10. Llorente, D. Jean Antoine. The History Of The Inquisition Of Spain From The Time Of Its Establishment To The Reign of Ferdinand VII. London: G. B. Whittaker, 1826

11. Prescott, William H. The History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella The Catholic (Vol. 2). New York: Harper & Brothers, 1850.

12. Prescott, William H. History Of The Reign of Philip The Second. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1866

13. Faroqhi, Suraiya. The Ottoman Empire and The World Around It. London: I.B. Tauris, 2004

14. Lane-Poole, Stanley. The Story of The Barbary Corsairs. New York: G.P. Putnam, 1890.

15. Hurley, Victor. Swish of The Kris. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1936

16. Brann, Ross. Power in the Portrayal: Representations of Jews and Muslims in Eleventh- and Twelfth-century Islamic Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002

17. Burns, Robert I. et al. Negotiating Cultures: Bilingual Surrender Treaties in Muslim-Crusader Spain Under James the Conqueror. Leiden: Brill, 1999

18. Peters, Francis E. Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994

19. Diffie, Bailey Wallys. Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415-1580. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994

20. Harvey, L.P. Islamic Spain 1250 to 1500: 1250 to 1500. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992

21. Wolf, Kenneth Baxter. Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987

22. Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987

23. Lea, Henry. History of the Inquisition of Spain. New York: Macmillan, 1906

24. Meyerson, Mark D. The Muslims of Valencia: In the Age of Fernando and Isabel: Between Coexistence and Crusade. Beverly: University of California Press, 1991

25. Halavais, Mary. Like Wheat to the Miller. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

26. Glick, Thomas F. Islamic And Christian Spain In The Early Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979

27. Al Wanshirisi, Abu Abbas Ahmad bin Yahya. Al M’yar Al M’orib wa Al Jaam’a Al Maghrib. Rabat: Ministry of Awkaf and Islamic Affairs, 1981

28. Bal, Idris. Turkish Foreign Policy in Post Cold War Era. Universal Publishers, 2004.

29. The Holy Quran

30. Diouf, Sylviane. Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in the Americas. New York: NYU Press, 1998.

31. Carvajal, Luis Del Marmol. Historia del rebelión y castigo de los moriscos del reyno de Granada. Oxford: Oxford University, 1797.

32. Sahih Bukhari

33. Sahih Muslim

34. Al Muwatta of Imam Malik

35. Musnad Imam Ahmad

36. Marin, Manuela et al. Handbuch Der Orientalistik, Published by BRILL, 1992

37. Khaldun, Ibn. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, (3 vol.). (Trans: Franz Rosenthal, Dawood). New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1967.

38. Al Makkari, Ahmed Ibn Mohammad (Trans. Pascual De Gayangos) . The History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain (2 Vol.) (trans. Of Al Nafh Al Tib). London: Oriental Translation Fund, 1840.

39. Tafsir Ibn Kathir

40. Constable, Olivia Remie. Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997.

41. Monroe, James T. Hispano-Arabic Poetry: An Anthology. Gorgias Press LLC, 2004.

42. Curran, Charles E. Change in Official Catholic Moral Teaching. Paulist Press, 2003.

43. Davenport, Frances Gardiner. European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies. READ BOOKS, 2008.

44. Gerard Albert, Wiegers. Islamic Literature in Spanish and Aljamiado: Yça of Segovia (fl. 1450), His Antecendents and Successors. New York: BRILL. 1994

45. Grotius, Hugo. The Freedom of the Seas, or the Right Which Belongs to the Dutch to take part in the East Indian Trade. New York: Oxford University Press. 1916

46. Janis, M. and Noyes, J. International Law: Cases and Commentary (3rd ed.). St. Paul: Minnesota, WestGroup. 2006

47. Waïl S. Hassan. “Lawrence, T. E.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature. David Scott Kastan. Oxford University Press. 2005.


49. Khilal, Prof. Muhammad Abdullah A’nan. General Encyclopedia of History of the Maghrib and Andalus (الموسوعة العامة لتاريخ المغرب والاندلس). 1995. Vol. 1, P. 225.

50. Al Kataani, Ali Montasir. The Revival of Islam in Al Andalus (انبعاث الإسلام بالأندلس). Beirut: Dar Al Kotob Ilmiya. 2005

51. Scheuer, Micheal. Marching Toward Hell: America and Islam afer Iraq. New York: Free Press. 2008.

52. Anonymous. Imperial Hubris. Potomac Books. 2004.

53. Janer, Florencio. Condicion social de los Moriscos de Espana: Causas de su expulsion, y consecuencias que esta produjo en el orden economic y politico. Madrid, 1857.

54. Al Makkari, Ahmed Ibn Mohammad. Nafh Al Tib Min Ghasn Al Andalus Al Rateeb (8 vols.). Beirut: Dar Saadir, 1988.

55. Al Suri, Abu Musab. Muslims in Central Asia and The Coming Battle of Islam. Kabul: Markaz Al Ghuraba, 1999.

56. Judah, Tim. Kosovo: War and Revenge. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

57. Cowans, Jon. Early Modern Spain: A Documentary History. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003.

58. Ruano, Eloy Benito. Gente del siglo XV. Real Academia de la Historia, 1998.

59. Edwards, John. The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs, 1474-1520. Blackwell Publishing, 2000.

60. Lapeyre, Henri. Géographie de l’Espagne morisque. Paris: SEVPEN, 1959.

61. Boase, Roger. ‘The Morisco Expulsion and Diaspora: An Example of Racial and Religious Intolerance,’ Cultures in Contact in Medieval Spain: Historical and Literary Essays Presented to L. P. Harvey, ed. David Hook and Barry Taylor. London: King’s College, 1990.

62. Goodman, David C. Power and Penury: Government, Technology and Science in Philip II’s Spain. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

63. Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Simon and Shuster, 2003.

64. Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1990.

65. Grey, Stephen. Ghost Plane: The True Story of the CIA Rendition and Torture Program. New York: St. Martins Griffin, 2007

66. David D. Laitin and Said S. Samatar. Somalia: Nation in Search of a State. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987.

67. Benton, Lauren. Law and Colonial Cultures .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

68. Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. The Career and Legend of Vasco Da Gama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

69. Ricklefs, M.C.. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, 1991.

70. Basri, Mohd. Fawzi bin Mohd.; Sakdan, Mohd Fo’ad bin; Man, Azami bin. Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah Sejarah Tingkatan 1. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2002.

71. Lockhart, Donald M. The Itinerário of Jerónimo Lobo, (translated by Donald M. Lockhart). London: Hakluyt Society, 1984.

72. Barnett, Thomas P.M. The Pentagons New Map. New York: Berkely Publishing Group, 2005

73. Reeve, Simon. The New Jackals. London: Andre Deutch, 1999.

74. Kaplan, Robert D. Imperial Grunts. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.

75. Hamid, Maj. Muhammad. Imam Shamil: The First Muslim Guerilla Leader. Delhi: Adam Publishers, 1991.

76. Asad, Muhammad. The Road to Mecca. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust, 1999.

77. Amin, Galal. Whatever Happened to the Egyptians? Changes in Egyptian Society From 1950 to the Present. Cairo: American University of Cairo, 2001.

78. Ghazi, Mahmood Ahmad. The Sanusiyyah Movement of North Africa. Islamabad:Shariah Academy, International Islamic University of Pakistan, 2001.

79. Aburish, Said K. The Rise, Corruption and Coming Fall of the House of Saud. London: Bloomsbury Publications, 1995.

80. Unger, Craig. House of Bush, House of Saud. London: Gibson Square, 2005.

81. Van Gelder, G. J. H. & de Moor, Ed. The Middle East and Europe: Encounters and Exchanges. Rodopi, 1992.

82. Al Hajari, Ahmad Ibn Qasim. Kitab Nasir Al Deen A’la Qawm Al Kaafireen. Madrid, 1997.

83. Boswell, John. The Royal Treasure: Muslim Communities under the Crown of Aragon in the Fourteenth Century. Connecticut:Yale University Press,1977.

84. Meyerson, Mark D. The Muslims of Valencia in the Age of Fernando and Isabel. Berkeley:  University of California Press, 1991.\

85. O’ Sullivan,Patrick & Miller, Jesse W. The Geography of Warfare. Worcester: Billing and Sons, 1983.

86. Laqueur, Walter. Guerilla: A Historical and Critical Study. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1976.

87. Ghadhanfar, Mahmood Ahmad. Commander of the Muslim Army. Riyadh: Darussalam, 2001.

Scholarly Journal Articles:

1. Shadid, Wasif & Van Koningsveld, Sjoerd. “Loyalty to a Non-Muslim Government: An Analysis of Islamic Normative Discussions and of the Views of some Contemporary Islamicists.” Kok Pharos, (1996): pp.84-115

2. Afroz Sultana. “The Jihad of 1831-1832: The Misunderstood Baptist Rebellion in Jamaica.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 21.2, (2001), pp. 227-243

3. Zaimeche, Salah. “Granada- The Last Refuge of Muslims In Spain.” Foundation For Science Technology and Civilization (2004).

4. Haggar, Soha Abboud. “Las Leyes de Moros Son el Libro De Al Tafri: El famoso manuscrito de la Real Academia de la Historia es unacopia parcial, fragmentaria, resumida y coninterpolaciones del tratado de jurisprudencia malikí de Ibn Al-Gallab.” Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho 4, (1997), pp. 163-201.

5. Byler, Charles. “Pacifying the Moros: American Military Government in the Southern Philippines, 1899-1913.” Military Review (May-June 2005), pp. 41-45

6. Silva, Alberto Da Costa E. “Buying and Selling Korans in Nineteenth-Century Rio de Janeiro.” Slavery and Abolition 22.1, (2001), Pp. 72-82

7. Singelton, Brent D. “African Bibliophiles: Books and Libraries in Medieval Timbuktu.”Libraries & Culture, 39.1, (2004), pp 1-12

8. Fareed, Abu Alfa Muhammad Shareef Bin. “The Islamic Slave Revolts of Bahia, Brazil.” Sankore Institute of Islamic-African Studies.

9. Viguera, Maria J. “Las cartas de al-Gazali y al-Turtusi al soberano almoravid Yusuf b. Tasufin,” Al-Andalus, 42.2 (1977) pp. 341-374

10. Stewart, Devin. “The Identity Of “The Mufti Of Oran”, Abu L-‘Abbas Ahmad B. Abi Jum‘ah Al-Maghrawi Al-Wahrani.” Al-Qantara 27: 2,( 2006), pp. 265-301

11. Baepler, Paul. “White Slaves, African Masters.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 588, Islam: Enduring Myths and Changing Realities, (2003), pp. 90-111

12. Loomie, Albert J. “Toleration and Diplomacy: The Religious Issue in Anglo-Spanish Relations, 1603-1605.” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, 53.6, (1963), pp. 1-60

13. Malagón-Barceló, Javier. “Toledo and the New World in the Sixteenth Century.” The Americas, 20.2, (1963), pp. 97-126

14. Phillips, Carla Rahn. “Time and Duration: A Model for the Economy of Early Modern Spain.” The American Historical Review, 92.3, (1987), pp. 531-562

15. Cook, Jr., Weston F. “The Cannon Conquest of Nasrid Spain and the End of the Reconquista.” The Journal of Military History, 57.1, (1993), pp. 43-70

16. Altman, Ida. “Spanish Society in Mexico City after the Conquest.” The Hispanic American Historical Review, 71.3, (1991), pp. 413-445

17. Cornell, Vincent J. “Socioeconomic Dimensions of Reconquista and Jihad in Morocco: Portuguese Dukkala and the Sadid Sus, 1450-1557.” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 22. 4, (1990), pp. 379-418

18. Pike, Ruth. “Sevillian Society in the Sixteenth Century: Slaves and Freedmen.” The Hispanic American Historical Review, 47.3, (1967), pp. 344-359

19. Elliott, John H. “The Decline of Spain.“ Past and Present, No. 20, ( 1961), pp. 52-75

20. Harvey, L.P. “Review: [untitled] Author(s): L. P. Harvey Reviewed work(s): Aljamiadotexte by Reinhold Kontzi.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 39. 1, (1976), pp. 172-173

21. Iversen, Reem F. “Prophecy And Politics: Moriscos And Christians In Sixteenth And Seventeenth-Century Spain Volume I.” Princeton University PHD dissertation, (2002).

22. Hough, Walter. Oriental Influences in Mexico. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 2, No. 1, (1900), pp. 66-74

23. Bourke, John G. “Notes on the Language and Folk-Usage of the Rio Grande Valley. (With Especial Regard to Survivals of Arabic Custom.).” The Journal of American Folklore, 9.33, ( 1896), pp. 81-116

24. Heath, Jim F. and Nunn, Frederick M. “Negroes and Discrimination in Colonial New Mexico: Don Pedro Bautista Pino’s Startling Statements of 1812 in Perspective” Phylon, 31.4, (1970), pp. 372-378

25. Miller, Kathryn A. “Muslim Minorities and the Obligation to Emigrate to Islamic Territory: Two fatwās from Fifteenth-Century Granada.” Islamic Law and Society, 7.2, Islamic Law in Al-Andalus, (2000), pp. 256-288

26. Surtz, Ronald E. “Morisco Women, Written Texts, and the Valencia Inquisition.” Sixteenth Century Journal, 32. 2, (2001), pp. 421-433

27. Hegyi, O. “Minority and Restricted Uses of the Arabic Alphabet: The Aljamiado Phenomenon. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 99.2, (1979), pp. 262- 269

28. López-Morillas, Consuelo. “Language and Identity in Late Spanish Islam.” Hispanic Review, 63.2, (1995), pp. 193-210

29. El Fadl, Khaled Abou “ Islamic Law and Muslim Minorities: The Juristic Discourse on Muslim Minorities from the Second/Eighth to the Eleventh/Seventeenth Centuries” Islamic Law and Society, 1.2, (1994), pp. 141-187

30. Wright, Louis B. & Macleod, Julia H. “First American Campaign in North Africa” The Huntington Library Quarterly, 7.3, (1944), pp. 281-305

31. Matar, Nabil. “English Accounts of Captivity in North Africa and the Middle East: 1577-1625,” Renaissance Quarterly, 54.2, (Summer, 2001), pp. 553-572

32. Lobel, Jules. “Covert War and Congressional Authority: Hidden War and Forgotten Power,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 134. 5, (1986), pp. 1035-1110

33. Davis, Robert C. “Counting European Slaves on the Barbary Coast,” Past and Present, No. 172, (2001), pp. 87-124

34. Christian Captives at “Hard Labor” in Algiers, 16th-18th Centuries Author(s): Ellen G. Friedman Source: The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 13, No. 4, (1980), pp. 616- 632

35. Marín, Manuela & El Hour, Rachid. “Captives, Children and Conversion: A Case from Late Nasrid Granada.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 41.4, (1998), pp. 453-473

36. Lincoln, J. N. “An Itinerary for Morisco Refugees from Sixteenth-Century Spain,” Geographical Review, 29.3, (1939), pp. 483-487

37. Lincoln, J. N. “Aljamiado Prophecies” PMLA, 52.3, (1937), pp. 631-644

38. Gerhard, Peter, “A Black Conquistador in Mexico.” The Hispanic American Historical Review, 58.3, (1978), pp. 451-459

39. Davis-Secord, Sarah. “MUSLIMS IN NORMAN SICILY: THE EVIDENCE OF IMAM AL-MAZARI’S FATWAS, Mediterranean Studies, Volume 16, (2007), pp 46-66

40. Perry, Mary Elizabeth. “Between Muslim and Christian Worlds: Moriscas and Identity in Early Modern Spain.” The Muslim World, Vol 95, (2005)

41. Hess, Andrew C. “The Moriscos: An Ottoman Fifth Column in Sixteenth-Century Spain.” The American Historical Review, 74.1, (1968), pp. 1-25

42. Clark, G.N. “The Barbary Corsairs in the Seventeenth Century.” Cambridge Historical Journal, 8.1, (1944), pp. 22-35

43. Brown, Philip Marshall. “The Rights of States under International Law.” The Yale Law Journal, 26.2, (1916), pp. 85-93

44. Barbour, Nevill. “The Significance of the Conflict in Algeria.” African Affairs, 56.222, (1957), pp. 20-31

45. Lopez-Baralt, Luce. “La angustia secreta del exilio: El testimonio de un morisco de Tunez” Hispanic Review, 55.1, (1987), pp. 41-57

46. Hess, Andrew C. “The Battle of Lepanto and Its Place in Mediterranean History.” Past and Present, No. 57, (1972), pp. 53-73

47. Monter, E. William. “The New Social History and the Spanish Inquisition.” Journal of Social History, 17.4, (1984), pp. 705-713

48. James, David. “The “Manual de artillería” of al-Ra’īs Ibrāhīm Ahmad al-Andalusī with Particular Reference to Its Illustrations and Their Sources.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 41.2, (1978), pp. 237-257

49. Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. The Beylicate in Seventeenth-Century Tunisia.” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 6.1, (1975), pp. 70-93

50. Hess, Andrew C. “The Evolution of the Ottoman Seaborne Empire in the Age of the Oceanic Discoveries, 1453-1525.” The American Historical Review, 75.7, (1970), pp. 1892-1919

51. Smelser, Marshall. “The Passage of the Naval Act of 1794” Military Affairs, 22.1, (1958), pp. 1-12


53. Quick, Abdul Hakim. “Muslims in the Caribbean Before Columbus.” The Message International, (1992).

54. Bewley, Aisha. Yusuf ibn Tashfin: The March Of Conquest Of Yusuf B.Tafsin. <;. 1/27/2001.

55. Hoque, Zubair Muhammad Ehsan. “Elegy for Lost Kingdoms and Ruined . Asiatic Society

56. Boase, Roger. “The Muslim Expulsion from Spain:  An Early Example of Religious and Ethnic Cleansing” <>

57. Ma, Rosey Wang. Chinese Muslims in Malaysia, History and Development. < > 11/26/2008.

58. Government of India. Census of India 2001, Data on Religion. < >. Census of India. 11/22/2007

59. Renaker, David. “The Aetheist Seventeenth Century Website.” “For the First Time in English: The Ad Extirpanda of Pope Innocent IV (1252).” <>. 9/24/2007

60. Cook, Karoline P. “Navigating Identities: The Case of A Morisco Slave in Seventeenth-Century New Spain.” The Americas, 65:1 (2008), p. 63-79.

61. Koningsveld P. S. and Wiegers G. A. “An appeal of the Moriscos to the Mamluk sultan and its counterpart to the Ottoman court : Textual analysis, context, and wider historical background.” Al-Qantara, (1999),  20:1, pp. 161-189.

62. Macaulay’s Minute on Indian Education (1835)

63. Moore, K.A., et al. A Statistical Portrait of Adolescent Sex, Contraception, and Childbearing. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 1998.

64. Kaiser Family Foundation. Sex on TV: A Biennial Report of the Kaiser Family Foundation. 2001.

65. “Stress, Depression and Drug Abuse: Fallout of 9-11 – Depression Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments Including Clinical and Manic Depression”, September 2003.

66. Turkish National Archives

67. Cardona, Pedro Aznar. “Expulsión justificada de los moriscos españoles, 2 parts.” I, fol. 190v. Huesca: Pedro Cabarte, 1612.

68. Magas, Branka. “The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: An Overview.” London: Islamic World Report (1996), ‘Bosnia: Destruction of a nation, inversion of a principle.’

69. Roncevic, Hasan. “The Bosnia Counter-offensive Forestalled by the Dayton Accord.” London: Islamic World Report (1996), ‘Bosnia: Destruction of a nation, inversion of a principle.’

70. Malcolm, Noel. “The West’s Response To The War In Bosnia: A Short History of Errors and Failures.” London: Islamic World Report (1996), ‘Bosnia: Destruction of a nation, inversion of a principle.’

71. Nicolle, David. “ Medieval Warfare: The Unfriendly Interface.” The Journal of Military History, Vol. 63, No. 3, (Jul., 1999), pp. 579-599.

72. PsyWar.

73. Rivers, Susan T. Exiles From Andalusia. < >. Saudi Aramco World, July/August (1991), p. 10-17.

74. Barletta, Vincent. Aljamiado Literature. University of Colorado Boulder.

75. McKenna, Thomas M. “Muslim separatism in the Philippines: Meaningful autonomy or endless war?” Asia Source, Asia Social Issues Program <;.

Audio and Video Lectures and Programs:

1. Quick, Abdul Hakim. Deeper Roots. Lecture in the UK.

2. Daeej, Dr. Ahmed Bin Yusuf. Al Tareekh al Siyasiyee lil Maghrib wal Andalus/A Political History of the Maghrib and Andalus.

3. Al Zaid, Dr. Ibrahim Bin Abd Al Aziz. Interview on “Al Moltaqan Al Adabi.” Al Majd Channel (Saudi).

4. Kataiba Al Motaardeen (المطاردين كتيبة). Al Jazeera. (documentary about Mujahideen in Bosnia)

5. Birtley, Tony. “The Lost Tribe: Secret Army of The CIA.” Al Jazeera English. 2008

6. Martinkus, John. “Psych War in Afghanistan.” Dateline: SBS channel (Australia). October 19 2005


Appendix Z

Posted in Uncategorized at 5:59 pm by History of Al Andalus

List of Foreign fighters in Crusade upon Garnata at the end of the 15th Century CE, (source: ‘Gente del siglo XV’ in the articles named “Extranjeros en la guerra de Granada” and “El Libro del Limosnero de Isabel la Católica”):

Name and Description


Adan, çoyso
çoyso = Swiss (suizo in modern Spanish)


Adan Tres, francés
francés = French


Andreas Rudo or Ruede, de Superiore Carçania


Andrés Fanega, çoyso (= Fanecker?)


Andrés de Fulda


Anriques, çoyso


Anthoni de Tamplus, ville de Perona


Antonio Floquin, çoyso


Anthonius de Paris


Arbelis Fabra, civitatis Parisiensis, regni Francie
Latin: city/citizen? of Paris, kingdom of France


Arçes Estaygar (=Steiger?)

German (Swabian)

Aydacar, çoyso (= Heidecker or Heidegger?)


Bartholomeo Tranxes, Imperii Alamanie (=Tranches?)
Latin: German Empire

German Emp.

Barverà, maestre lombardero
maestre lombardero = master of the lombard, a small type of cannon


Bendicti Blancar, ciuitatis Friborensis (Freiburg)
Latin: city/citizen? of Freiburg


Benedictus Mans, oriundus ciuitatis Olm, regni de Suedem (= Ulm, Schwaben)
Latin: native of the city of Olm, kingdom of Swabia


Bernardo del Roi


Cahele, çoyso (=Kailer?)


Henricus Fabreas


Enricus de Julianus, ciuitatis Coloniensis, Imperii Alemanie
Latin: city/citizen? of Cologne, German Empire

German (Koeln)

Enricus Muri de Thurego, nacione alamanus (Heinrich Murer de Thurgau = Zurich)

German (Zurich)

Enrique de Calona, çoyso


Enrique Fabreos (see Enricus Fabreas)

Enrique de Says, çoyso


Escales, conde de (see Woodville, Anthony)
Count of


Francisco de Olanda, maestre del artillería
maestre del [sic] artillería = master of artillery


Frayle (El), çoyso
Frayle = Friar (literally, spelled “Fraile” in modern Spanish), Swiss


Galian, çoyso


Gascón, çoyso


Gaspar Faris (16) or Frai (= Frei?), naciones sueuiorum, Capitaneo suyciorum
Lat: of the nation of Swabia, Captain of the Swiss?/Swabians?/?


Gaston de Lyon, senescal de Tolouse
seneschal of Tolouse


Georgius alamanus, vicinus de Calbo (= Calw Hanover?)
Lat: George german, citizen of Calbo


Ginés Angeber


Gonzalo de Santarem, espingardero
espingardero = person  in charge of / shooting  the espingarde, a type of cannon


Guillelmus Bosses, oriundus ciuitatis Andegauensis, regni Francie (Angers)


Guillén, maestro polvorista
maestro polvorista = master of gunpowder


Guillén Bretón, lombardero
person in charge / shooter of the lombard cannon


Guillermo, maestre lombardero francés
master of the lombard cannon


Guillermo Leroi, fundidor de lombardas
fundidor de lombardas = caster of lombard cannons (as in making them out of metal)


Guillermo Marstun (= Marstham?), criado de la cámara del Rey de Inglaterra
chamber(?) servant of the King of England


Henricus Haxinger (=Haschinger), naciones sueuiorum
Lat: of the nation of Swabia?


Henry, francés


Holrrici Envert (=Ulricus Enbert), ville de Xuyce, diocesis Costexensis


Huel Riares Delque (=Wilhel Riars), çoyso


Hulis de Huelgon (= de Welden, de Wellkein?), naciones sueuiorum
Lat: of the nation of Swabia?


Jacobi Lo Largo, ciuitatis de Santo Lodo, regni Francia (= Saint Lo)
Lat: of the city of Santo Lo, kingdom of France


Jain Picart, maestro lombardero y afinador de salitre
master of the lombarde cannon and refiner? of saltpeter / niter


Jaro, çoyso (= Harald, Harro?)


Joannes Barberi, ciuitatis de Burgenberri, regni Francie (= Bourges)
Lat: of the city of Bourges, kingdom of France


Johannes Beches, çoyso (= Weisser, Waitser?)


Joannes Borgoñón, loci Sauonyii, ducatus Burgundie (=Savona)
Lat: of the place of Savona, duchy of Burgundy


Joannes Causach (= Kausach), monasterii Sanctii Laurencii Ordinis Sanctissime Trinitatis in terra de Candala siti


Joannes Cella de Turrego (= Hans Keller de Thurgau or Thuregum, Zurich)

German? (Zurich)

Joannes de Cierch (= Zurich?)

German? (Zurich)

Joannes Grilbert (= Gilbert), ciuitatis de Reyns, regni Francie (= Reims)
Lat: of the city of Reims, kingdom of France


Joannem Guinicium (= Guinec), ciuitatis de Rixmunt (= Richmond)
Lat: of the city of Richmond


Johannes Mete (= Metten?), çoyso


Joannes Mortimer in sacris constitutionibus et in artibus bachalarius, ville Northanton (= Northampton), regni Anglie


Joannes Rill (=Ruel?), ciuitatis de Visenburch (= Weissenburg), Imperii Alemanie


Joannes de Sieris (see Joannes de Cierch)

Joanne Straynor (= Strainer), ciuitatis de Olm (Ulm), Imperii Alemanie


Joannes de Toyan, ciuitatis Maydeborch (=Magdeburg), ducatus Sacçonie, Imperii Alemanie

German (Saxony)

Joannes Veyterville (= Watervill?) Petrelingue


Joannes Villisetun, ciuitatis de Neuburch (= Newbrigh) regni Escocie
Lat: of the city of Newbright, kingdom of Scotland


John Morton

Jorge, maestro lombardero
master of the lombard cannon

Juan Dabre (= de le Havre?)


Juan Inglés


Juan Aportogués, escudero de las guardas
esquire of the guards?

Juan de Argentina (=Estrasburgo)


Juan de Bretaña, tirador
shooter? / supplier?


Juan de Ricart, lombardero
person in charge / shooter of the lombard cannon


Julianus Scaufar (= Schaeffer, Skauffer) de Bernancia (=Bern)


Juan de Strabor (= Strassburg?)


Martin Copin, tirador de pertrechos
provider? of (military?) supplies

Martin Jorge, fundidor, lombardero y maestre de fuego, francés
foundry-worker, lombarde shooter/whatever and master of fire (?!)


Matheus Sanche de Bernancia ( Matthaeus Santschi, Sanzer?, of Bern)


Mentellin, capitán de los arqueros bretones
= captain of the Breton archers


Michael Camarlensis, ville Brucellensis (Brussels), ducatus Brabant, Imperii Alemanie


Miquel Johannes, çoyso


Nicandel (= Philippe de Shaundé, Lord Schande)


Nicolao, maestre lombardero
person in charge / shooter of the lombard cannon

Nicolás, maestre salitrero y polvorista, francés
master of saltpeter/niter and gunpowder, frenchman


Nicolás de Berna, maestre


Ombertus or Ubertus Stantus de Ybernia, regni Angliae


Osner, polvorista francés
Frenchman, making /in charge of gunpowder


Payar, çoyso (= Bayer?)


Pedro, maestro lombardero alemán
German master of the lombard cannon


Pedro de Abre (= Le Havre)


Pedro Aunón, lombardero
person in charge / shooter of the lombard cannon

Peri or Peti Juan, polvorista francés, artillero tirador
French gunpowder man, artillery shooter


Petrel Ausur, çoyso – Swiss


Petrel Coperel, çoyso – Swiss


Petrus Alamanç, de Brujas – of Bruges


Petrus de Dossa (= Dessau?), frater nacionis Sueuiorum


Petrus Frimut, oriundus ciuitatis de Luco, prouincia de Lusordia (= Lugano?)


Pierres, lombardero francés
French  person in charge / shooter of the lombard cannon


Pierres de Bre (= Brie, Pré?), lombardero francés, maestre tirador de artillería
French lombard cannon man, master artillery shooter


Pregi, señor de – Lord of Pregi

Rafaele militum, ciuitatis de Leyscia (Leeds)
Lat: of the city of Leeds


Rodrigo de Colona, çoyso – Swiss


Rogerius Besul, oriundus ville de Vinsor (Windsor), regni Angliae
Lat: native of the town of Windsor,  kingdom of England


Roldán de La Sala, ciuitatis Burgen en Berris (= Bourges, Perry?)

Sanceo Hanse (= Hansen?), el Quemado, alemán
the Burnt, German


Sancho (= Santzer?), moço de espuelas, çoyso
servant? of the spurs, Swiss


Simón, maestre lombardero
master of the Lombard

Thoma Bert, ciuitatis de Yorch (York), regni Angliae
Lat: of the city of York,  kingdom of England


Thoma Lyl (Lyll), ciuitatis de Duran (Durham)
Lat: of the city of Durham


Thoma Noel, ville Douster (= Docester)


Tomás Bretón, artillero


Ursus Stayar, naciones Sueuiorum (see Arces Estaygar)
of the Swabian nation


Varranus de Boysech (= Woyzeick), germani gentis
Lit: of the German people?

Polish? / German?

Woodville, Anthony, “lord” Scales[2]


These are given in the same book (Gente del siglo XV) as an appendix to the above and the related article. They were taken from “El Libro del Limosnero de Isabel la Católica” edited by Eloy Benito Ruano. Only those whose names were provived are included in this list. The quotes are Ruano’s.

Name and Description


Andrés Picardo, inglés que vino con el conde inglés y estuvo cautivo en Illora y Moclín
Englishman who came with the English Count and was captive in Illora and Moclin (Granadan towns)


Bulen, flechero inglés
English arrowman (arrow maker?)


France de Tois


Francisco de Vernel, capitán inglés
English captain


Guillermo Marstun, “criado de la cámara del Rey de Inglaterra, que vino con el conde d’Escalas e se le morió el cauallo yendo a Santiago”
“chamber servant of the King of England, who came with the Count of Scales and had his horse die on the way to Santiago” (of Compostella)


Johan Morton, de Londres, “que estuuo en la guerra con el Marqués de Cádiz”
of London, participated in the war with the Marquis of Cadiz


Juan de Aviñón, “que vino a seruir a la guerra a su costa con cauallo e armas e perdió en la guerra el cauallo”
“came to serve at the war at his expense, with a horse and arms, and lost the horse in the war”


Nicolás Voquet, que volvía junto con France de Tois a encontrarse con el conde d’Escalas, para quien el Rey le dió una carta
was going back with France de Tois to meet the Count of Scales, for whom the King sent a letter

Niculás el Francés, criado del conde d’Escalas, herido tres veces en Loja
Nicholas the Frenchman, servant of the Count of Scales, wounded three times at Loja


Petrus Benart, capellán del conde de Scales
chaplain of the count of Scales


Radulfus de Anguia, caballero inglés que trajo siete compañeros
English knight who brought seven companions


Roberto, flechero inglés
English arrowman


[1] During the 15th Century CE, it was a free republic

[2] This actually refers to Edward Woodville (d. 1488)

Appendix Y

Posted in Uncategorized at 5:56 pm by History of Al Andalus

Full Arabic version of Tariq Bin Ziyad’s speech to his troops from Imam Maqri’s Nafh Al Tib.

أيها الناس، أين المفر؟ البحر من ورائكم، والعدو أمامكم، وليس لكم والله إلا الصدق والصبر، واعلموا أنكم في هذه الجزيرة أضيع من الأيتام في مأدبة اللئام، وقد استقبلكم عدوكم بجيشه وأسلحته، وأقواته موفورة، وأنتم لا وزر لكم إلا سيوفكم، ولا أقوات إلا ما تستخلصونه من أيدي عدوكم، وإن امتدت بكم الأيام على افتقاركم، ولم تنجزوا لكم أمرًا ذهبت ريحكم، وتعوَّضت القلوب من رعبها منكم الجراءة عليكم، فادفعوا عن أنفسكم خذلان هذه العاقبة من أمركم بمناجزة هذا الطاغية فقد ألقت به إليكم مدينته الحصينة، وإن انتهاز الفرصة فيه لممكن، إن سمحتم لأنفسكم بالموت وإني لم أحذركم أمرًا أنا عنه بنجوة ولا حَمَلْتُكُمْ على خطة أرخص متاع فيها النفوس إلا وأنا أبدأ بنفسي، واعلموا أنكم إن صبرتم على الأشقِّ قليلاً، استمتعتم بالأرفَهِ الألذِّ طويلاً، فلا ترغبوا بأنفسكم عن نفسي، فما حظكم فيه بأوفى من حظي، و قد بلغكم ما أنشأت هذه الجزيرة من الحور الحسان، من بنات اليونان، الرافلات في الدرّ و المرجان، و الحلل المنسوجة بالعقيان، المقصورات في قصور الملوك ذوي التيجان، و قد انتخبكم الوليد بن عبد الملك أمير المؤمنين من الأبطال عُربانًا، ورضيكم لملوك هذه الجزيرة أصهارًا، وأختانًا، ثقة منه بارتياحكم للطعان، واستماحكم بمجالدة الأبطال والفرسان؛ ليكون حظُّه منكم ثواب الله على إعلاء كلمته وإظهار دينه بهذه الجزيرة، وليكون مغنمًا خالصة لكم من دونه، ومن دون المؤمنين سواكم، والله – تعالىولَّى أنجادكم على ما يكون لكم ذِكرًا في الدارين.

واعلموا أنني أول مُجيب لما دعوتكم إليه، وأني عند مُلتقى الجمعين حامل نفسي على طاغية القوم لذريق، فقاتلهإن شاء الله تعالى -، فاحملوا معي، فإن هلكت بعده، فقد كفيتكم أمره، ولم يعوزكم بطلب عاقد تسندون أموركم إليه، وإن هلكت قبل وصولي إليه؛ فاخلفوني في عزيمتي هذه، واحملوا بأنفسكم عليه، واكتفوا الهمَّ من فتح هذه الجزيرة بقتله؛ فإنهم بعده يُخذلون

Appendix X

Posted in Uncategorized at 5:53 pm by History of Al Andalus

Letter from Mawlavi Ibn Abu to Uruj Ali Pasha, the Uthmani Governor of Algiers, Asking for Aid for Al Bushra Jihad (1570). (Source: Inb’aath Al Islam BilAndalus by Professor Ali Montasir Al Kataani, p. 112-113, and is also found in Muslims of Spain: 1500-1614 by L.P. Harvey, p.339)

و بعد التوكل على الله راسل مفتي القسطنطينية العثمانية حاتا إياه على إقناع السلطان العثماني أنذاك سليم الثاني بإرسال مساعدات عسكرية عاجلة للأندلسيين.

و أمام هذا الوضع الحرج أخذ السلطان ابن عبو يستغيث بالدولة العثمانية من جديد. فأرسل كتابا إلى امير أمراء الجزائر, علي باشا, وأخر إلى مفتي القسطنطينية مؤرخا ب11 شعبان عام 977 ه (11-2-1570م-) هذا نصه:

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم, العزة لله, من عبد الله المتوكل على الله, الحي بفضله و قدرته, المجاهد في سبيله, أمير المؤمنين, المستمسك بشريعة الله, مبيد الكفار و قاهر جيوش العاصين لله, مولاي عبد الله محمد بن عبو, بارك الله مسعاه, وسدد خطاه ليسترد عزة الأندلس, و يجدد نهضتها, نصرها الله القدير, و هو القادر على كل شيء, إلى صديقنا و حبيبنا الخاص, السيد العظيمو و الشريف الكريم, السامي المتقدم , العامل المحسن, الخائف من الله, أنعم الله عليه بنعمة الغفران

أما بعد فسلام الله عامة على دولتنا العلية, و نعمته و بركاته الوفيرة. أيها الأخ العزيز, لقد بلغتنا أنباء دولتكم العلية, و شخص السلطان الكريمو وما صدر عنه العطف على التعساء البائسين, و أنه سأل عنا, مهتما لمعرفة ما يجري لدينا, وأنه اهتم و تألم لما أصابنا من ضنك و نصب على أيدي أولائك النصارى, و أن صاحب الجلالة و العظمة السلطان قد أرسل إلينا كتابا مختوما بخاتمه يعدنا فيه بالنصرة بعدد وافر من الرجال المسلمين, و بما نحتاج إليه من العون و العدد التي تسمح لنا بالحفاظ على هذه الأرض“.

و بما أننا نقاسي المتاعب الشديدة في هذه الأزمة المريرة, فإننا نلجأ من جديد إلى الباب العالي, نطلب النجدة و المعونة و النصر عن يدكم. فالنجدة النجدة, بالله القاهر فوق الناس جميعا. ونرجو من سيادتكم إعلام السلطان القادر بأحوالنا و إخباره بأخبارنا, بالحرب الكبرى التي نخوضها, وقولوا لعظمنه إنه إذا أراد أن يشملنا برعايته و عطفه فليبادر إلى إنجادنا بسرعة قبل أن تهلك, فهناك جيشان قويان يتجهان إلينا لمهاجمتنا من جهتين. و إننا إذا مااندحرنا في المعركة, فإن الله سبحانه سيحاسبه على ذلك حسابا عسيرا يوم القيامة, يوم لا تنفع القوة في الحجة. و السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته.

حرر يوم الثلاثاء في الحادي عشر من شهر شعبان 977ه.

مولاي عبد الله محمد بن عبو“..

In the name of Allah, The Most Compassionate, The Most Merciful. Glory belongs to Allah [alone]. This letter is from the slave of Allah, the one who puts his trust in Allah, the one who is alive by the grace and power of Allah, a Mujahid in His path, the Commander of the Believers, the one who holds fast to the Shari’ah of Allah, the annihilator of the disbelievers, vanquisher of the armies of disobedience towards Allah. Mawlavi Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abu- May Allah bless his efforts and correct his mistakes in order to return the honour of Al Andalus and bring back its glory. May Allah the all powerful grant it victory and He has power over all things. To my special and beloved friend, the great master, the noble, the exalted, the foremost in eminence, the benevolent and the one who fears Allah. May Allah bestow upon him the gift of forgiveness.

As for what follows:

May Allah’s peace and abundant blessings and favors be upon our great country.

My dear brother, the news of your great country has reached us. The beneficent Sultan who shows mercy and kindness towards the suffering and distressed has asked about us, concerned about what is happening with us and is moved by what afflicts us of hardship and poverty at the hands of the Christians. His majesty, the Sultan has sent us a letter stamped with his seal promising us with help in terms of a large number of Muslim men and whatever support and equipment we need that allows us to secure this land.

Although we suffer severe hardships in this bitter disaster, yet we come again to the High Porte[1], asking for help and support from you, so we beseech you for help! By Allah, the Omnipotent, the one who is above all mankind.

We ask your majesty to inform the powerful sultan about our news and situation and about the great war which we are fighting and tell his majesty that if he wants to include us in the realm of his care and mercy then he should hurry to rescue us before we are destroyed. There are two powerful armies coming towards us, attacking us from two sides. If we are defeated in the battle, then Allah (سبحانه و تعلى) will give him a difficult reckoning for that on the Day of Resurrection- the day when power will be of no use against any excuse. Peace and blessings of Allah upon you.

Written on Tuesday 11th of Sha’ban, 977 A.H. (Feb. 11th , 1570)

Mawlavi Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abu.

[1] The High Porte referred to the private court of the sultan. Porte is French for “gate”; therefore, the term High Porte is a bilingual combination of English High and French Porte that is equivalent to Bab-ı A’li.

Appendix W

Posted in Uncategorized at 5:50 pm by History of Al Andalus

Letter from Uthmani Khalifa to Ibn Ummaya to Explain Why He Can Not Send Substantial Help (January 1569). Source: Turkish National Archives

مهمة دفتري رقم 14 حكم رقم 231 بتاريخ 24 شوال عام 977ه موافق 20-1-1569م, أعطي إلى خليل جاوخي في 10 ذي القعدة. حكم إلى اهالي الأندلس.

وصل إلى استانة سعادتنا عرض حالكم الذي جاء فيه أن الكفارة, دمرهم الله و أضلهم, قد سلبوكم أسلحتكم و منعوكم من التحدث بالعربية, و أنهم يتعرضون انسائكم و يمارسون كل أنواع الظلم و التعدي عليكم. و تعلمون أنه يوجد حاليا لديكم عشرون ألف رجل مسلم كما أن هناك مائة ألف رجل قادر على حمل السلاح. و علمنا باستلامكم مقدارا من السلاح من الجزائر, و أن ذلك قد ربط على قلوبكم, و تمكنتم بذلك من تكبيد الكفار العديد من الخسائر. فالحمد لله على نصر أهل الإسلام, و ليكتب لهم الفوز الدائم على الكفار, أضلهم الله. وقد عرض بالتفصيل كل ما جاء في عرض حالكم من تحريرات و تقريرات على سرير سعادتنا, و أحاط علمي الشريف الملوكي و شمل كل ما يتعلق بأحوالكم و أخباركم, و أن أنظاري منصرفة دائما نحوكم“.
و لكن كفرة جزيرة قبرص القريبة من ممالكي المحروسة, و التي كانت على العهد و الامان منذ زمان اجدادي العظام, أنار الله براهينهم, نقضوا تلك العهود و أخذوا بالتعدي على التجار و أهل الإسلام و المسافرين بحرا لطواف بيت الله الحرام و زيارة تربة حضرة سيد الأنام عليه أفضل الصلاة و السلام بخلوص النية و صفاء الطوية. و بذلك فإنهم مصرون على العصيان و الطغيان. لذا بعد التوكل و الإعتماد على علو عناية الحق سبحانه و تعالى و التوسل و الإسناذ إلى المعجزات كثير البركات لفخر الموجودات صلوات الله عليه و سلامه. و كذلك بالإستمداد بالأرواح الطاهرة لسائر الصحابة الكرام, عليهم رضوان الله تعالى أجمعين, فقد استقرت نيتنا الملوكية على فتح و تسخير الجزيرة المذكورة في الربيع الأخر القادم. و نضرع إلى عتبة حضرة الحق جل وعلا أن ييسر لنا فتح و تسخير تلك الجزيرة و أن يبسط أيدينا عليها حتى تؤهل لأهل الإسلام, كما كانت عليه, و كي تقام فيها شعائر الشرع الشريف, و حتى يأمن التجار في غدوهم و رواحهم, و ينصرفوا للدعاء بثبات و مجد و رفعة دولة“.
و بما ان الوضع على هذا الحال, فإن إرسال الأسطول الهمايوني المظفر لحمايتكم سيتأخر ريثما يتم إيصال المراكب للعساكر المنصورة للجزيرة المذكورة. و سيتم ذلك إثر إنهاء الأسطول لمهمته بعناية الحق. و قد أرسل أمري الهمايوني المؤكد إلى امير أمراء الجزائر الذي تتجه أنظاره و أفئدته نحوكم لإرسال النجدة و المعونة لكم, إما بإرسال العساكر المظفرة أو بإرسال العدة و العتاد, و بموجب أمري الشريف فإن أمير أمراء الجزائر سيكون خير معين و ظهير لكم“.
كما أننا نتوخى من خلال حميتكم الإسلامية المتأصلة في حلبتكم عدم التراخي عن إظهار غيرتكم على الدين المتين, فلتظهروا أنواع أخدامكم و أصناف اهتمامكم في الحرب و القتال و الجدال ضد الكفار الاذلاء. و المأمول ألا يضن علماء و صلحاء و سائر أهل الإسلام في تلك الديار بالدعاء ليل نهار بتيسير الفتح و النصر للغزوة المظفرة. و لا تتوانوا عن إعلامنا باستمرار عن أحوال و أوضاع تلك الديار“.

Task Book #: 14

Ruling #: 231

Dated: 24 Shawwaal 977 Hijri/January 20th 1569

Presented to Khaleel Jawkhee on 10th Dhil Qa’ada

Title: A Ruling to the Inhabitants of Andalus

It has reached our majesty that the disbelievers, May Allah destroy them and lead them astray, have disarmed you and prevented you from speaking Arabic and they rape your women, and they inflict all types of injustice and wrongdoings upon you. You know that currently with you are 20,000 men. Additionally, there are 100,000 men able to bear arms. We have learnt that you have received some weapons from Algiers and that made your hearts firm so you managed to cause them many losses. So praise be to Allah for giving victory to the Muslims and may Allah ordain for them permanent success against the disbelievers and May He lead them astray. All the written and spoken news [about you] came in detail to our majesty. All the news which is related to your situation is surrounded in my noble and royal knowledge and my concerns always revolve around you.

But the disbelievers of the island of Cyprus, which is near to my safeguarded domains, are those who have the covenant of protection [from us] since the time of my glorious ancestors -May Allah enlighten their proofs- broke their covenants and started to attack the merchants, the Muslims, sea travelers on their way to circumambulate the sacred house of Allah (Al Ka’ba), to visit the Masjid Al Nabawi and pilgrimage, to the soil which is in the presence of the Honorable Master of the human race, with sincere intentions[1]. Despite this, the disbelievers are insistent upon disobedience and exceeding the limits. Therefore, after trust in Allah and invoking the Prophet (صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم) and seeking aid from the pure spirits of the companions[2] (May Allah be pleased with all of them) of the Prophet (صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم), our royal intention has settled upon conquering and subjugating of the already mentioned island [Cyprus] next rabee’ al Aakhir. We ask Allah jalla wa ‘ala humbly to make the conquest and subjugation of this island easy for us and to lay it open in our hands and to make it fit for the Muslims as it was before and to establish the rituals of the noble Shari’ah and for the merchants to be safe during their departures and arrivals and that they make supplications for the state to be firm and glorious and elevated.

Since this is the situation, the dispatching of the victorious Royal Navy for your protection will be delayed pending the delivery of the vessels to the victorious army [dispatched to] the mentioned Island [Cyprus] with the Care of Allah.

My firm royal command has been sent to the governor of Algiers who is always concerned about you to rescue and help you, either by sending victorious armies or by sending supplies and equipment. Because of my noble command, the governor of Algiers will be the best supporter and backer for you.

Additionally, we expect on relying on your Islamic enthusiasm, deep-rooted in your land, never tiring from showing your jealousy of this lasting religion, so make apparent [to the Spanish] your many abilities and grievances in the war against the humiliated disbelievers. And it is hoped from the scholars, reformers and the Muslims not to refrain from supplications day and night for the conquest to be made easy and for victory in the triumphant ghazwa[3] and don’t slacken in informing us continuously about the situation of that land.

[1] i.e. going to madinah

[2] tawassul

[3] Raid

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